Nutrisi Pasien Anak dengan Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Martinova Sari Panggabean

Abstract

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) atau penyakit ginjal kronik adalah kerusakan ginjal yang berlangsung selama tiga bulan atau lebih, ditandai dengan kelainan struktur maupun fungsi ginjal, baik disertai maupun tanpa penurunan laju filtrasi glomerulus (glomerular filtration rate/GFR). Anak dengan CKD berisiko mengalami gangguan nutrisi. Prevalensi malnutrisi pada anak dengan CKD dilaporkan sekitar 20%-45%. Malnutrisi pada anak dengan CKD telah terbukti meningkatkan risiko morbiditas dan mortalitas. Selain berdampak gangguan pertumbuhan, malnutrisi pada anak dengan CKD dapat meningkatkan risiko infeksi, kelemahan, depresi, penyakit kardiovaskuler, hospitalisasi dan kematian. Oleh karena itu, pemberian nutrisi yang adekuat sangat penting pada anak dengan CKD. Intervensi pemberian nutrisi dini diperlukan untuk mendukung tumbuh kejar dan merupakan komponen kunci dalam mempertahankan pertumbuhan anak dengan CKD.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as kidney damage lasting for at least 3 months, characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of the kidneys, either with or without a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Children with CKD are at risk for nutritional derangements. The prevalence of malnutrition among children with CKD was 20%-45%. Malnutrition in children with CKD are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Besides risk of growth development, malnutrition in children with CKD can increase the risk of infection, frailty, depression, cardiovascular disease, hospitalization and death. Adequate nutrition is pivotal in children with CKD. Early nutritional intervention is important to promote catch-up growth and is key components in the preservation of growth in children with CKD.

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References

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