Bakteri Anaerob Clostridium botulinum dan Toksin yang Dihasilkannya

Conny Riana Tjampakasari, Rifdah Hanifah

Abstract

C. botulinum adalah salah satu bakteri paling patogen karena dapat menghasilkan botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) yang mematikan. Terdapat 3 jenis botulisme, yaitu botulisme keracunan makanan, botulisme inhalasi, dan botulisme luka. Meskipun kejadian botulisme jarang, namun harus diwaspadai karena cukup fatal. Sebagian besar kasus botulisme pada manusia disebabkan oleh makanan kaleng yang dipersiapkan di rumah. Isolasi dan identifikasi C. botulinum dapat dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan pewarnaan Gram, kultur, dan identifikasi, sedangkan deteksi toksin dapat menggunakan metode mouse lethality assay, non-lethal mouse
assay, dan metode imunologi. Pendekatan molekuler dilakukan melalui uji polymerase chain reaction (PCR) untuk deteksi jenis toksin. Pencegahan botulisme dilakukan dengan teknik penanganan makanan yang tepat. Pemanasan yang memadai dapat membunuh spora bakteri, selain itu segera mengonsumsi makanan yang telah dimasak dapat mencegah C. botulinum bertumbuh.

 

C. botulinum is one of the most pathogenic bacteria because it can produce deadly botulinum neutotoxin (BoNT). There are 3 types of botulism: botulism poisoning, inhalation botulism, and wound botulism. Although the incidence of botulism is rare, the impact is quite fatal. Most cases of botulism in human are caused by canned food prepared at home. Isolation and identification of C. botulinum can be done by Gram staining, culture, and identification, while the detection of toxins can use the mouse lethality assay, non-lethal mouse assay, and immunological methods. Molecular approach can be done through polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) examination to detect the toxin type. Prevention can be applied with proper food handling techniques. Adequate heating can kill bacterial spores, and direct consumption can prevent proliferation of C. botulinum.

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