Efek Suplementasi Vitamin D terhadap Kejadian Dermatitis Atopik pada Anak

Talita Clarissa Sinatra, Krisna Ariaputra, Ratna Mustika Sari

Abstract

Latar Belakang: Dermatitis atopik (DA) merupakan kelainan kulit yang paling sering dijumpai pada bayi dan anak. Terapi konvensional memiliki efek samping dan komplians yang kurang baik, sehingga diperlukan terapi alternatif. Suplementasi vitamin D diperkirakan dapat memperbaiki luaran klinis DA pada anak karena adanya hubungan antara defisiensi vitamin D dan derajat DA anak serta peran vitamin D dalam memperbaiki sistem imunitas, fungsi barrier kulit, serta meregulasi proses inflamasi pada DA. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efikasi suplementasi vitamin D terhadap penurunan derajat eksaserbasi DA pada anak dibandingkan dengan terapi konvensional tanpa vitamin D. Metode: Pencarian literatur di MEDLINE dan Cochrane berdasarkan pertanyaan klinis, kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Artikel terpilih ditelaah kritis untuk menilai validitas, kepentingan, dan penerapannya. Hasil: Dari 5 studi randomized control trial (RCT) dengan validitas sama, 3 studi menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi vitamin D mampu menurunkan skor derajat serangan DA pada anak dibandingkan kelompok plasebo, 2 studi lainnya menunjukkan penurunan nilai, namun tidak signifikan. Pada kelima studi tidak
ditemukan efek samping atau komplikasi suplementasi vitamin D pada anak dengan dermatitis atopik. Simpulan: Suplementasi vitamin D dinilai dapat bermanfaat pada anak dengan dermatitis atopik yang merupakan kelompok risiko tinggi mengalami defisiensi vitamin D. Dosis vitamin D 500-1000 IU/hari per oral selama 1-3 bulan aman untuk anak. Masih dibutuhkan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk menilai dosis dan durasi suplementasi vitamin D terbaik
dengan efektivitas tinggi pada anak dengan DA.

 

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common skin disorder found in infants and children. Conventional therapy has major side effects and poor compliance, so alternative therapies are needed. Vitamin D supplementation is expected to improve the clinical outcome of AD in children because of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of AD in children and the role of vitamin D in improving the immune system, skin barrier function, and regulating inflammatory processes in AD. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the severity of AD exacerbation compared to children receiving conventional therapy without vitamin D. Methods: Literature search in MEDLINE® and Cochrane® based on clinical questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Selected articles were critically reviewed to assess their validity, importance and applicability. Results: Of the 5 randomized control trials (RCTs) with the same validity, 3 studies showed that vitamin D supplementation was able to reduce the severity of AD in children compared to the placebo group, the other 2 studies showed a decrease in scores, but not significantly. In the five studies, no side effects or complications of vitamin D supplementation were found in children with atopic dermatitis. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation is considered to be beneficial in children with atopic dermatitis who are a high-risk group for vitamin D deficiency. The dose of vitamin D is 500-1000 IU/ day orally for 1-3 months is safe for children. However, further research is needed to assess the best dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation with high effectiveness in children with AD.

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