Rabies in Children: Prevention and Management


  • Christine Tjahjadinata General Practitioner, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Wendi Clarita General Practitioner, Jakarta, Indonesia




Animal bites, prevention, zoonotic disease, prophylaxis, rabies


Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease caused by animal bites, with the majority of cases occuring in Asia, including Indonesia. About 30% to 60% of animal bite victims are children under 15 years old. Most rabies deaths are caused by delayed treatment because it is considered harmless, whereas prevention by providing prophylaxis before and after exposure can prevent rabies deaths. Meanwhile, the treatment for rabies is still limited and has a poor prognosis.


Download data is not yet available.


What is rabies? [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.who-rabies-bulletin.org/site-page/what-rabies.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Buku saku petunjuk teknis penatalaksanaan kasus gigitan hewan penular rabies di Indonesia. Jakarta; 2016.

Preiss S, Chanthavanich P, Chen LH, Marano C, Buchy P, van Hoorn R, et al. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies with purified chick embryo cell vaccine: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Expert Review of Vaccines 2018;17(6):525–45.

World Health Organization. Rabies [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rabies.

Soentjens P, Berens-Riha N, Van Herrewege Y, Van Damme P, Bottieau E, Ravinetto R. Vaccinating children in high-endemic rabies regions: What are we waiting for? BMJ Global Health. 2021;6(2).

Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Hingga April 2023 ada 11 kasus kematian karena rabies, segera ke faskes jika digigit anjing! [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://sehatnegeriku.kemkes.go.id/baca/rilis-media/20230602/3343156/hingga-april-2023-ada-11-kasus-kematian-karena-rabies-segera-ke-faskes-jika-digigit-anjing/.

Muhamad N. 10 provinsi di Indonesia dengan laporan kasus rabies terbanyak April 2023, Bali mendominasi [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2023/06/09/10-provinsi-di-indonesia-dengan-laporan-kasus-rabies-terbanyak-april-2023-bali-mendominasi.

Ostrowska A, Susło A, Zabłocka K, Bieńkowski C, Pokorska-Spiewak M. Analysis of qualification for post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in children in Poland. Paediatr Internat Child Health. 2022;42(3–4):142–7.

World Health Organization. Transmission and pathogenesis [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.who-rabies-bulletin.org/site-page/transmission-and-pathogenesis.

University of Rochester Medical Center. Rabies in children [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Nov 10]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=90&contentid=P02537.

Jackson AC. Rabies: A medical perspective. Reveu Scientifique et Technique de I’OIE. 2018;37(2):569-80.

Nemhauser JB. CDC Yellow Book 2024: Health information for international travel. Oxford University Press; 2023.

Souza A, Madhusudana SN. Survival from rabies encephalitis. J Neurol Sci. 2014;339(1–2):8–14.

Ledesma LA, Lemos ERS, Horta MA. Comparing clinical protocols for the treatment of human rabies: the Milwaukee protocol and the Brazilian protocol (Recife). Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 2020;53:e20200352.

Medical College of Wisconsin. Rabies registry website [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Nov 19]. Available from: https://www.mcw.edu/departments/pediatrics/divisions/infectious-diseases/rabies-registry-website.

Crowcroft NS, Thampi N. The prevention and management of rabies. BMJ. 2015;350:g7827.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How can you prevent rabies in animals? [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/prevention/animals.html.

American Kennel Club. Your complete guide to first-year puppy vaccinations [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/puppy-shots-complete-guide/.

WebMD. Pet vaccines: Schedules for cats and dogs [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.webmd.com/pets/petvaccines-schedules-cats-dogs.

Royal A, John D, Bharti O, Tanwar R, Bhagat DK, Padmawati RS, et al. A cost-effectiveness analysis of pre-exposure prophylaxis to avert rabies deaths in school-aged children in India. Vaccines 2023;11(1):88.

Vaxcorp Indonesia [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Nov 17]. Available from: https://clinic.vaxcorpindo.com/verorab-vaksin-rabies/.

PIO Nas. Rabipur [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2023 Nov 17]. Available from: https://pionas.pom.go.id/obat-baru/rabipur.

World Health Organization. Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper – April 2018 [Internet]. 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/who-wer9316.

Hobart-Porter N, Stein M, Toh N, Amega N, Nguyen HB, Linakis J. Safety and efficacy of rabies immunoglobulin in pediatric patients with suspected exposure. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics 2021;17(7):2090–6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC-ACIP recommendations [Internet]. 2008. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/resources/acip_recommendations.html



How to Cite

Tjahjadinata, C., & Clarita, W. (2024). Rabies in Children: Prevention and Management. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, 51(7), 379–383. https://doi.org/10.55175/cdk.v51i7.1082